Family Money: Sheltering Your Money Offshore
Managing director of Westminster Portfolio Services (Thailand) Ltd.
Expats must ensure their financial base is both
flexible and adequately supported during times of uncertainty and
volatility, such as we have experienced in the past several months.
Wherever you are in the world, knowing how to mobilise
your assets effectively, swiftly and safely is considered by financial
managers as nothing short of essential. Leaving your capital to languish
in a bank deposit account may seem the safest thing to do, but it ensures
it is being eroded by inflation, and may be losing you alternative
investment opportunities that are still very low risk and likely to
produce a much better return, even in the relatively short term.
This preparation of money movement – often referred
to as "a flight to quality" – means expats should be asking
themselves the following questions:
*How safe is the jurisdiction in which my wealth is
*How safe are the key investment vehicles my money is
*How can I avoid capital loss?
*How accessible is my money if I decide to move it to
another investment instrument/provider?
When it comes to financial manoeuvring the entire
scenario facing any expat can be wrapped up as follows: What should I buy?
What should I sell? And when should I carry out these transactions?
A reputable independent financial adviser is the
individual with the critical skills most needed by expats who either
cannot answer those questions themselves or who are dissatisfied with the
answers they have been given by either their current adviser or provider.
What you are looking for is an experienced and
reputable adviser who:
*can answer your questions satisfactorily, in language
you can understand;
*will recommend a strategic course of action which is
in keeping with your overall financial goals and aspirations;
*can assist you with the effective mobilisation of your
*can assist you with carrying through the necessary
transactions, or carry them out on your behalf.
Where’s the best?
Next you need to check the regulatory environment in
which your monies are kept or will be kept. When you buy a house, you
probably pay at least as much attention to where the house is situated as
to the accommodation on offer. But how often do you stop to think where
your bank, financial adviser or product provider is situated, how that
jurisdiction is viewed and whether it has sound regulation to protect you
in case things go awry?
The choice of offshore jurisdiction has an important
bearing on the quality and security of investment products on offer and
the protection and compensation schemes available to investors: these are
key issues to research visàvis any offshore financial centre. (The
country’s official web site is perhaps the best place to check on these
matters in the first instance.) A jurisdiction’s approach to regulation
is demonstrated by how committed it appears to be in observing high
regulatory standards. For instance, in relation to banking, is it a member
of the Offshore group of Banking Supervisors?
Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are all premier
offshore financial service centres with sound regulatory laws and the
necessary supervisory muscle to safeguard the reputation of those islands’
financial services sector. For instance, the Isle of Man’s Office of
Fair Trading has established an ombudsman whose job it is to arbitrate
between consumer-complainants and offshore financial services’
providers. This ensures a further layer of consumer interest and
protection within the industry, and has had a profound effect on the Isle
of Man’s status as a leading offshore financial centre.
There is one other professional body which also has the
services of an ombudsman for expats, and that is the Offshore Financial
Trade Association (OFTA). OFTA has just celebrated its first anniversary,
and at the end of last year reported a total of 143 members with a further
28 being processed. Their director general was recently quoted as saying:
"The OFTA Ombudsman scheme is key to our aim of raising the level of
consumer protection in the industry. It is all the more vital as an
alternative dispute resolution mechanism because litigation for the
individual in the international arena is even more fraught than in the
But what if your preferred financial adviser is
operating from an unregulated environment – such as Thailand? Again you
can gain some peace of mind from asking the right questions: First, does
your money go directly to a reputable offshore investment provider, or via
your adviser’s bank account? If the latter, steer clear. But if your
adviser never handles your money, but acts as an independent intermediary
between you – the investor – and a range of reputable offshore
providers, then you can be reasonably sure that the offshore provider has
already checked out his company’s modus operandi and bona fides, and is
satisfied that this intermediary is not going to run off with your money
and will deal with you honestly.
Ethics and "best advice" are a conjoined
subject which you should consider carefully before signing up for any
recommended investment. Consider whether it meets your investment
objectives, is within acceptable risk parameters, that you fully
understand how it works, the charges involved and any early redemption
penalties that might apply.
Ensure you know who will be providing you with ongoing
professional advice – and how frequently. Does your adviser or his firm’s
designated portfolio manager have enough experience and track record of
success to be able to provide you with ongoing portfolio management on
either an advisory or discretionary basis, or is your adviser simply a
product salesman (at which many are very good, but hopeless when it comes
to constructing and managing a portfolio that is appropriate to your needs
and risk-aversion profile, and prevailing market conditions)?
Then, how long has your adviser’s firm been in
business? How long has your adviser been with that firm? Lived in this
country? Worked for how many firms before this one? Does he have a Work
Permit? (Ask to see a copy.) Otherwise, what guarantee do you have that he
will be around to advise you after he’s collected his first tranche of
commission? His word as a gentleman?
If there’s any doubt, there’s no doubt: ask what
alternatives are available, and go through the same steps to ensuring you
fully understand what it is you are investing in, for how long, and what
you can reasonably expect to get back. If the answers are less than
transparent or satisfactory, find an alternative adviser.
Snap Shot: To shoot like a pro - read like a pro
by Harry Flashman
People who enjoy taking photographs often wonder what
it would be like to take photos for a living, or even just as a little
"pin money". Some of the best photographers I know started just
that way. They enjoyed working with their camera, somebody saw their work
and asked them to take a photograph for them, paid them some money and
they were off and running! Professional photographers.
Harry Flashman began the same way. Wanting to take a
shot of a bright pink concrete truck, I contacted the concrete company. As
a ‘thank you’ I gave them a large print. That shot ended up giving me
a three year contract to do a glamour calendar for the company. I was off
and running too! A professional photographer!
In those early days, I had one essential piece of
equipment that I still have today, and still use today - no, it wasn’t
the tripod. It was a book! Written by professional photographer, Richard
Sharabura, it was called "Shooting your way to a $ Million".
Written in 1981, the advice is just as pertinent today as it was 22 years
ago. Anyone who has ever contemplated any form of "pay me for my
pictures" should read this book.
One of the finest pieces of advice I was given in the
early days, which I also got out of a book, was just "Without any
pictures, you are just a gypsy with a camera." In other words, it is
no good just saying you can take photographs - you have to have some
examples to show people. Now in the pro world, this is called your
"book" or your portfolio. This is looked at by an art director,
who then decides if he likes your work, he will give you more. It is that
For you, just starting off, if you know of someone who
wants pictures taken of their restaurant food, it doesn’t do much to
show them 48 great shots you have taken of horses. At the early stage, you
need to have good shots of different subjects - people, lifestyles, food,
cars, horses, golf, kids, portraits, sunsets, nightlife, samlors, - you
must be getting the idea by now! Stick them in an album and you have
something to tote around to show people.
So how do you get to take great shots of people,
lifestyles, food, cars, horses, golf, kids, etc., etc.? Well, you read
about it in books, that’s how! Did you know that everything you ever
needed to know about taking pictures has already been written down for
you? Master photographers have spent great chunks of their lives to tell
you and me how to do it! Sometimes you may think that the photography
books you buy are too expensive, but how many books that you buy will tell
you how to make money with them after reading them?
Of course you do have to do a little more than just
reading. You do have to take photos as well! A good exercise is to imagine
that you are a newspaper photographer, taking pictures for a paper just
like the one you are reading right now! Pretend that the editor is sending
you out to cover a feature, and give yourself one feature every weekend.
So each week you have an assignment (this is a good exercise for students
also) and go out and cover it pictorially. Here’s a few for you to try:
the bus station, shopping, nightlife, the local laundry, life as a petrol
pump attendant, beggars, and taxis. The list is as big as your
Now go out and illustrate that topic, as if the editor
had told you to cover it. Make your shots describe the action, scene or
activity. Think about how you are going to do it and how you are going to
show it. Make the subject the "hero" and use plenty of film.
You get better in photography by doing it more often - just read all
about it first.
Modern Medicine: Athlete’s foot -
for the non-athletes!
by Dr Iain Corness, Consultant
It is that season again, when Athlete’s Foot seems to
be on the increase. The hot soggy weather brings out the hot soggy
condition where the web between the toes gets so itchy you could happily
scrape it with a coarse file. But don’t. Help is at hand.
Many people have a never-ending battle with Athlete’s
Foot. This is one of the most common conditions in the world, and you
certainly do not have to be an athlete to get it - but it helps! Why?
Because athletes, like so many sporting groups, tend to stand around
shower/changing areas in their bare feet, spreading the little organism
that causes the condition.
So let’s talk about the condition. The correct name
is Tinea, and we have several types depending upon the area of the body
that is affected. If it is in your scalp we call it Tinea capitis, on the
body - Tinea corporis, on the hands - Tinea manum, on the feet - Tinea
pedis and in the groin we call it Tinea cruris, otherwise known as Dhobie
itch, Jock itch or Crutch Rot! What a wonderful grab bag of conditions to
say the least.
The organisms which cause all these are called
Dermatophytes, and they have the ability to live in skin and can invade
hair and even nails. The most common has the exciting name of Trichophyton
rubrum, a noble name for an organism that can live in the soggy bits
between your toes, I’m sure you’ll agree.
The symptoms generally consist of a spreading
"rash" with reddened edges that becomes itchy and eventually
quite painful as the infection goes into the deeper layers of the skin.
This is the result of the organism putting out "tentacles" which
extend deeper. Yes, it is like a grass, growing and spreading its roots.
Unfortunately, there are a number of other conditions
that can make themselves evident in a similar fashion, including
psoriasis, eczema and some forms of dermatitis. This is the most usual
reason for "Athletes Foot" preparations not working - it wasn’t
"Athlete’s Foot" to begin with!
There are various methods of clinching the diagnosis,
including examination with a special Wood’s Light, which allows you to
look at the affected region with UV light. The most accurate way, however,
is to take scrapings and examine under the microscope for the tell tale
So what can you do if it really is our friend
Trichophyton that is cropping up between your toes and other unmentionable
places? The first thing to do is not use high powered steroid creams, but
use a topical anti-dermatophyte preparation like Canesten cream. You can
alternate with a weak steroid, but remember that the steroid does not
"cure" the problem - it only masks it.
With some very stubborn cases it may be necessary to
use medication by mouth to attack the organism through the blood stream,
but these can have some fairly unpleasant and nasty side effects,
especially on your liver. If your liver is having problems straining the
blood out of the beer stream then you need extreme caution.
To prevent re-occurrence it is necessary to be very
careful where you put your toes, never share towels and jump over communal
bath mats - but even then you may find it comes back. Remnants of the
organism start putting out their tentacles and the cycle is on again. And
Heart to Heart with Hillary
I can’t beleieve (sic) what you said to the Irish bloke,
Caring Chris. His girl was obviously talking to other falang who send money to
her or visit her when they come on holiday. It’s a wonder the poor guy in
question didn’t have to foot the bill for the Izuzu (sic) pickup’s axle.
Long haired gentleman on a motor bike - Harley no less, sounds like a decent
citizen to me. Never met you but are you a man (katoey in print drag)? Spent a
good chunk of last year in good auld Pattaya (8 months) not working enjoying,
and had a decent shop working girl friend, who I know has some other falang
interest. Anyway what I want to ask you (don’t know if you’ll publish this
or not) is how to amicabally (sic) end the relationship without: a) the girl in
question losing face, and: b) me in question not losing face as I have quite a
few Thai friends. Girl is a bit neurotic. In England I would just sit down with
a girl and talk and end things on a kind note. Thailand is a different kettle
of fish altogether (no promises of marriage etc.) no money changing hands
except for dinner and movies every now and again. Known the girl for 3 years
odd now, no calls for money for sick buffolo (sic). Maybe I’m a cheap Charlie
but didn’t buy any gold - only thing I bought was a pair of glasses for her.
Only reason I send this e-mail is because of the poor Irish bloke (me being
Irish too) hit a note and wanted to ask.
Dear Not anon,
Thank you for your colourfully spelled email. You appear
not to understand ‘reading between the lines’ in my advice to Caring Chris,
but don’t let that influence your Irish viewpoint (or spelling). Now to your
problem and the parting of the ways for you and your long term girlfriend.
Looking dispassionately at the situation, you are quite the heart and soul of
generosity, aren’t you? In 3 years you bought her a pair of glasses! 175 baht
from the stall at the side of the road! (I am presuming that the gift was
spectacles, and not a couple of tumblers.) And you are worried about how to
amicably end the relationship! Just sit her down, as you would do in England,
you say, and tell her to put the glasses on and look carefully at you. She
should see just what a cheap Charlie you really are, and will run for cover
like a startled gecko. As far as her having another male interest, can you
blame her? You gave her no money, no gold, no promises of marriage, but took
her for dinner and a movie "every now and again." I feel sorry for
the poor girl, she must be soft in the head, as well as being blind, to put up
with someone so mean for so long. As far as Hillary being a katoey - you have
to be joking, Petal, surely! Let me assure you that Hillary is no katoey -
Hillary works on the WYSIWYG principle. What You See Is What You Get.
I have a local bar that I frequent and like many expat bars
in Thailand, there appears to be an endless supply of young ladies to keep one
company when you go in to have a cold one. During a rainstorm the other
evening, one young thing told me that her apartment roof leaked very badly and
so I took pity on her and gave her some dry shelter for the evening. This act
of charity is now backfiring badly, as when I drop in for a chat and a gargle
on a coldie, all the girls rush off and get Miss Lasnite Leekiroof, and now I
seem to be stuck with her. She is a nice enough sort of girl, but she hardly
bowls me over. This cramps my style, and not what I want in my local bar, where
I want to be footloose and fancy free. How do I get to play the field again,
Are you the same "Shane! I warned you about those tablets" who
was in the news recently? If so, no wonder you don’t want to be bowled over
by a mere slip of a girl, and want to get back to play the field. Fortunately
in the types of local bars you frequent, you don’t have to play at first slip
forever. All you need to do next time you pop down for a quick cold beer is to
tell Miss Lasnite Leekiroof, when the other girls push her in your direction,
that you would actually like to talk to her sister Miss Neksnite Leekiroof, and
here’s a 100 baht if you will bring her over to you and make the
introduction. I think you will find that 100 baht introduction fee should be
enough to mend her broken heart, or to stuff into the cracks in the leaking
Personal Directions: Training is a long term investment in the future
by Christina Dodd
Managing director of Westminster Portfolio Services (Thailand) Ltd.
When times are tough in business and the economy is
equally shaky, most companies tighten their belts and begin to put the
brakes on spending. That’s the logical thing to do. They look more
closely at ways of saving on their budgets and sadly, that usually means
cutting training budgets first up. This is what most companies do. I don’t
agree at all with it but this is the general reaction and trend that
develops when the business climate is far from favourable.
Recently, however, I was fortunate enough to prove this
general behavior wrong. Despite the SARS epidemic, which has had serious
consequences for many companies in the travel industry, and the overall
downturn in this industry on a global scale since September 11, a Dutch
gentleman by the name of Rob Waardenburg, who owns and runs Rowaco
(Thailand) Ltd, decided that this was the "perfect time" to
invest in his people and to "not" take anything away from them.
He therefore decided to treat them to a three-day teambuilding and
motivational workshop away from all the stress and worry of the business.
It really is refreshing to meet someone with insight
and vision. We had been talking for quite some time about doing some form
of training and I wasn’t expecting it to come through at the time that
it did. Rob called me very eager to get on with things. We planned the
program in a matter of what seemed moments so that all the staff at Rowaco
could get together and be together for these very special three days. Rob
had no doubt that this was the best time to do it!
People seemed to fly in from all over, meeting up in
Bangkok for the initial part and then all traveling down to Cha-am for the
remaining two days. Staff had a rare opportunity to mix and share each
other’s company, have some fun, eat and drink and actively work together
in a way that they had never done before. No-one, except for two or three
people including Rob, had ever participated in a teambuilding program and
certainly not one like this. And on the insistence of the young Thai
general manager, Khun Boonthien, the whole office closed up bringing along
all staff at every level including the office maid, driver and building
This is what it is all about - as far as I am
concerned. Everyone is important and has a role to play.
The three days brought out the best in each individual.
It was tough-going. No chance to just dance around and see the sights. It
was filled with activities to provoke thought and emotions at the deepest
levels. It was also a huge wake-up call for a lot who had become rather
complacent in their jobs and who had not been doing their fullest to
contribute to the company’s well-being.
Looking at specific problems and issues and then
tailoring the program content accordingly is the only way to present and
conduct these, or indeed, any program. It is so easy to just throw
together some humorous games and fun activities and let all the
participants come away having had "a great time" enjoying
themselves and having had some good meals as well. But that is not what it
is about. Training has to be able to get to the source of the problems
that exist in order to address them and to begin to change or rebuild or
improve the situations that exist as a result.
Then it can go one step further. After the training and
the "feel good effect", what then? How do you as a manager or
supervisor or CEO keep the feeling alive? It takes a lot of work and a lot
of effort to do this because people so easily revert to their same old
ways unless they have committed seriously to doing otherwise.
I am a firm believer in following-up after all my
programs. Following-up to ensure the momentum is in place and that the
benefits derived short-term can be converted to long-term benefits. It is
an integral part of any training program otherwise people feel suddenly
left up in the air to fend or themselves, when they still need to know how
to forge ahead with the same enthusiasm and feeling they felt during the
Usually two weeks after any program is a good
opportunity to recap and review the results. Also it is a good time to
focus on other areas that may need attention and sometimes it is only
after an initial program that theses areas surface and reveal themselves.
In this way clients are also adding to their long term investment in their
people. Not just abandoning them and saying, "well you did one
program so you should know everything now!"
If you are dealing with people in any kind of business
and you want to make a success of it, then you are in with those people
for the long haul. There is nothing instant when it comes to quality
training unless job specific of course. It all takes time and adults who
work are just like children, they have to be shown by example and in the
simplest possible way in order to get a clear and true picture of what is
As for Rowaco and follow-up, yes we will be doing it to
ensure the best possible results for them. No matter how large or small a
company, it is essential to continue with this process for a certain
period. Many companies I find are insisting on this process because they
themselves are not equipped to do it. Either their staff are not
qualified, do not have the time or do not have the resources. This is
quite often the case and personally I believe that it is more of a bonus
in some ways to have "different faces" involved because they
take away from the sameness that accompanies the usual HR faces and
personalities of a company.
If you are looking for teambuilding or other management
or staff development programs, please email me at [email protected]
or visit our website www. asiatrainingassociates.com
Until next time, have a wonderful week!
Social Commentary by Khai Khem
Is cleanliness next to ‘godliness’?
The above title of this column is an old Anglo-Saxon
expression coined in England to promote the idea that even if you are poor
there is no excuse for being dirty. Put another way; it means that even
low income people with very few material luxuries and no social,
economical or political power can be virtuous, and along with piety,
cleanliness is an admirable trait. This old expression popped into my head
while reading an email from a friend from Atlanta, Georgia. He and his
wife had just returned from a 2-week holiday in Pattaya. The message was
short. He thought Pattaya was fun. She thought Pattaya was a "nasty,
So why the two very different impressions of Pattaya?
The husband obviously was enjoying his break from a high-stress corporate
job. ‘Wifey’ admitted that she also had actually enjoyed her holiday,
since they had toured other Asian countries including Singapore, Hong
Kong, Japan and Korea. I stuck my neck out and asked the wife why she had
returned home with such a negative view of our city.
The American lady patiently typed an email to me in
order to explain that Pattaya did not repel her because of its
long-standing and infamous reputation for corruption and prostitution.
Quite the contrary. She and her husband stayed in one of our classy hotels
and went to respectable tourist venues. They didn’t see any lewd shows
and were not subjected to touts selling sexual favors on the streets. She
conceded that service in hotels, restaurants and shops was attentive and
that the Thai people she encountered were friendly and helpful.
Then the couple hired a car and driver for 3 days so
that they could drive around the city and its environs and sightsee off
the beaten track. Big mistake. Her verdict of the area was that it was a
shabby, dirty, disorganized, ill-planned city which in her view was pretty
much a giant slum with a few fabulously gorgeous venues sprinkled amongst
filth and neglect. Ugh!
Okay. As a total package, that probably does describe
Pattaya City and its environs all the way from north of Banglamung to
South Jomtien. But there is also a mentality here with which we as an
international tourist city must contend with. Some travelers get the ‘horrors’
when they come here because they don’t like the slums and filth.
Those of us who live here full-time know that in
general terms, we live a pretty good life and our city has a long list of
But Thai people aren’t ‘clean freaks’ as the
expression goes. We all live side-by-side, rich and poor, mansions and
shacks. A "live and let live" philosophy is the key to making
this work and it requires the discipline of tolerance. The negative
spin-off is if tolerance is taken too far it turns into apathy.
The point of the woman’s criticism in this instance
was that even though Thailand is a small underdeveloped kingdom, there is
no excuse for Pattaya to be so dirty and chaotic.
The fact is that we are now in the middle of the year
2003. The city is still shabby and obnoxious and in some areas our
problems are growing out of control. To employ an old bromide: "A
stitch in time saves nine". We don’t nip things in the bud, so
problems, whatever they may be are left to grow until the task of solving
them is monumental.
Pattaya is as much a victim of years of corruption and
neglect. Thais like to talk about problems. But they are not, by nature,
problem solvers because they tend to be fatalistic. Depending on how far
down the ‘food chain’ they are, they feel powerless to change the
long-established chain of command that is ruled from above.
How can we impress upon ordinary Thais who live in
shacks and slums how important it is to protect the environment and keep
their neighborhoods clean, when everyday of their lives they are
surrounded by the rich and powerful who live in mansions, drive expensive
cars and live lifestyles they can only fantasize about? What buttons can
we push to motivate enough pride to make them care about Pattaya and its
Unfortunately the very type of "well-heeled"
tourists we are trying to attract get the impression that those of us who
live in Pattaya and the ‘powers that be’ have no moral convictions
regarding how we live and our quality of life.
Explanations are demanded by outsiders and if we give
none, visitors will supply their own. Corruption, neglect, lack of self
esteem and absence of social conscience are some of the insults which are
hurled at us. Propaganda campaigns which produce no real results don’t
fool anyone, at least not for long.
Woman's World: Oenothera biennis
by Lesley Warner
For many years I have been taking primrose oil capsules,
convinced for one reason or another that they have magical properties that
will rejuvenate my skin. So it was very interesting for me to research
primrose oil to find out if I am wasting my time.
first thing I discovered was that it is not even a primrose! The oil is
actually extracted from the seeds of oenothera biennis (Latin name) more
commonly referred to as Evening Primrose Oil, which is not even a member
of the primrose family, but is part of the willow herb family. The oil was
only named after the primrose because its lovely yellow flowers resemble
The evening primrose has a two year cycle and the oil
is extracted from the seed during the second year when the flowers appear.
The seeds are pressed to extract the oils.
The evening primrose originated in North America and
back in the days when cargo ships brought cotton to the UK the primrose
seeds hitched a ride in the soil used as ballast, which was left behind.
The plant began to grow and then in 1614 it was taken
to Europe, the medicinal uses were soon discovered and it was nicknamed
"Kings Cure All." Evening primrose oil has been praised for
centuries for its healing powers in a wide range of ailments. The secret
of the plant is in the seed, which contains the essential fatty acid GLA
(Gamma Linolenic Acid). Most of the health benefits of evening primrose
oil come from this powerful substance.
These days evening primrose oil is used for a variety
of problems; for example, millions of women use the healing powers to help
counteract the effects of premenstrual tension. Research has shown that
evening primrose oil may help alleviate breast pain, bloating, discomfort
as well as reducing irritability. There have been many instances where
women have seen these symptoms lessen or disappear altogether after they
started taking this supplement.
Some of the other symptoms that have benefits when
using evening primrose oil are eczema and other skin disorders.
It has been shown to reduce high serum cholesterol and
blood pressure, but may take several weeks or longer to achieve.
Some research states that alcoholism withdrawal may be
made easier, and post-drinking depression might be relieved. It can even
help with the hangover.
Evening primrose oil is said to contain unknown
anti-coagulant substances. The whole plant is edible and is often used in
pickles, soups, and sautés.
As with all supplements there are precautions - it is
not recommended for persons taking blood-thinning products such as aspirin
or for those suffering with temporal lobe epilepsy. Probably best avoided
during pregnancy due to the effects on hormones.
Not to be forgotten is borage oil extracted from the
starflower very similar to the evening primrose. The cultivation of the
starflower plant was introduced by the Arabs in southern Spain in the
early Middle Ages. It is now grown in many parts of Europe, Asia and North
America. The plant can be found growing on riverbanks, compost heaps,
barren areas, and even in the Alps.
The starflower is known to have been used worldwide in
the research and treatment of cancer for over 700 years, as quoted by the
Cancer Research Campaign, Registered Charity No 225838.
Starflower oil is rich in the fatty acid Gamma
Linolenic Acid (GLA), at approximately twice the level of evening primrose
oil, which is an important intermediary in the metabolic conversion of
Linolenic Acid into Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). PGE1 is one of many
prostaglandins which are interconvertible, and which modulate the action
of many hormones.
Both of these supplements have many benefits, as we can see, but
remember everything in moderation and if in doubt contact your doctor.