Today is Sunday, Jan. 3, the 3rd day of 2016. There are 362 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1521 – Martin Luther is excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
1648 – English military leader Oliver Cromwell condemns King Charles I before Parliament. The Royalists soon take up arms again and the Second Civil War begins.
1739 – Convention of the Pardo to settle Anglo-Spanish disputes opens.
1777 – Gen. George Washington’s army defeats the British in the Battle of Princeton, New Jersey.
1778 – Palatinate recognizes Austrian claim to Lower Bavaria.
1795 – Secret treaty takes place between Russia and Austria for third partition of Poland.
1815 – Austria, Britain and France form defensive alliance against Prussia and Russia.
1868 – The Meiji Restoration re-establishes the authority of Japan’s emperor and heralds the fall of the military rulers known as shoguns.
1896 – Anglo-German relations reach crisis over German support to Transvaal leaders.
1915 – Rebellion breaks out in Albania.
1921 – First Indian Parliament meets.
1925 – Benito Mussolini, prime minister and leader of Italy’s Fascists, assumes responsibility for the murder of an opposition politician and dares parliament to prosecute him. He launches a crackdown that makes him dictator of Italy.
1938 – The March of Dimes campaign to fight polio is organized in the United States.
1941 – Italian forces surrender at Bardia, Libya, in World War II.
1947 – U.S. Congressional proceedings are televised for the first time as viewers in Washington, Philadelphia and New York City see some of the opening ceremonies of the 80th Congress.
1961 – United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba.
1962 – Indonesia’s President Sukarno proclaims West New Guinea an independent province.
1974 – Kuwait reaches agreement with Gulf Oil and British Petroleum companies for 60 percent takeover of their operations in Gulf state.
1977 – International Monetary Fund gives largest loan in its 30-year history — almost $4 billion — to Britain to bolster the country’s currency.
1985 – Israel reluctantly concedes it mounted an airlift recently to relocate large numbers of Ethiopian Jews from the famine-wracked country to Israel.
1990 – Ousted Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega surrenders to U.S. forces, 10 days after taking refuge in the Vatican’s diplomatic mission.
1993 – U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign an arms control treaty to reduce nuclear weapons by two-thirds.
1997 – A Rwandan court sentences two Hutu men to death, the first verdict in the massacres of hundreds of thousands of Rwandans, most of them Tutsis, in 1994.
2000 – Assailants protesting Russia’s crackdown on Chechnya fire rocket-propelled grenades at the Russian Embassy in Beirut. A policeman and a Palestinian attacker die.
2005 – President George W. Bush enlists two former presidents, his father George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, for an ambitious private fund-raising drive for victims of the deadly tsunamis in south Asia.
2007 – Myanmar’s repressive military government frees 2,831 prison inmates, including about 20 political prisoners, ahead of the 59th anniversary of its independence from Britain.
2009 – After seven days of pummeling Gaza from the air, Israel unsheathes its land forces, raising its war against Gaza’s Hamas rulers to a new level.
2013 – An American drone strike in Pakistan kills a top Taliban commander who sent money and fighters to battle the U.S. in Afghanistan but had a truce with the Pakistani military.
2015 — Israel halts transfer of tax revenues it collects on behalf of the Palestinians in retaliation for their move to join the International Criminal Court in the Hague.
Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian musician (1710-1736); Clement Attlee, British statesman (1883-1967); David W. Griffith, pioneer U.S. film producer (1875-1948); J.R.R. (John Ronald Reuel) Tolkien, British fantasy writer (1892-1973); Victor Borge, Danish pianist-humorist (1909-2000); John Paul Jones, English bassist w/rock group Led Zeppelin (1946–); Mel Gibson, U.S.-Australian actor (1951–).
Thought for today:
Very few men are wise by their own counsel; or learned by their own teaching. For he that was only taught by himself, had a fool for his master — Ben Jonson, English dramatist and poet (1572-1637).