Ms Yingluck was accused of breaching the charter by unlawfully transferring the then National Security Council (NSC) secretary general Thawil Pliensri to another position in 2011
The Supreme Administrative Court last week ruled that the premier's transfer order was unlawful and Mr Thawil must be reinstated to his position within 45 days.
In the petition signed by 27 senators, they stated that the premier may have violated Article 268 of the Constitution and that could cause her disqualification from the country's top job.
Article 268 of the Constitution stipulates that the prime minister cannot interfere in transferring or removing of government officials for personal gain, of herself, others or political parties directly or indirectly.
The Constitution Court ruled that the prime ministerial order for removal of the NSC chief in 2011 was unlawful as the premier had acted in an inappropriate manner and that was not in line with the government's policy statement delivered to Parliament.
Second deputy senate speaker Anan Ariyachaipanich received the petition on behalf of Senate Speaker Nikom Wairatpanich. He said the verification process will not be long and the petition will be forwarded to the Senate Speaker and the Constitution Court respectively.