Office of the Constitutional Court Secretary General Chaowana Traimas said that the Court voted unanimously to consider the petition filed by a group of 28 senators led by Paiboon Nititawan.
According to the petition, the senators said that Ms Yingluck's order to transfer Mr Thawil from NSC Secretary General to an advisor to the Prime Minister post was unconstitutional.
The judges said that the petition was submitted in accordance with the Constitution and that it was under the Constitutional Court's jurisdiction to consider the request.
Ms Yingluck was asked to defend herself within 15 days.
The Supreme Administrative Court ruled on March 7 that the removal of Mr Thawil from his NSC post was unlawful and ordered to reinstate Mr Thawil in 45 days.
Meanwhile, the Constitutional Court rejected a petition filed by caretaker Labour Minsiter Chalerm Yubamrung who asked the Court to order anti-government protesters of the People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) to stop their protest.
Mr Chalerm, also director of the Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (CAPO), said that the PDRC protest was not held peacefully under the Constitution.
The Constitutional Court, however, decided not to accept it for further consideration, saying that the protest leaders led by Suthep Thaugsuban, PDRC secretary general, are already facing arrest warrants.